Part 4 of Finnish Americans in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula. Historically, the UP has been and still is the nation’s primary settlement area for Finnish Americans, and they have left their cultural tracks on the region.
Arnold Alanen. “The Development and Distribution of Finnish Consumer’s Cooperatives in Michigan, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 1903-1973.” In The Finnish Experience in the Western Great Lakes Region, Ed. by Michael Karni, et. al. Turku, Finland: Institute for Migration, 1975, pp. 103-129.
Dorson, Richard. Blood Stoppers and Bear Walkers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Fishman, J. Language Loyalty in the United States. London: Morton, 1966.
David Halkola. “Finnish-language Newspapers in the United States.” In The Finns in North America. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 1969, pp. 73-90.
David Halkola. “Kielikysymys: The Language Problem in the Suomi-Synod.” In The Faith of the Finns, Ed. by Ralph J. Jalkanen. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 1972, pp. 275-290.
Hoglund, William, In the Trek of the Immigrants. Ed. by O. Fritiof Ander. Rock Island, IL: Augustana College Library, 1964.
William Hoglund. “Breaking With Religious Tradition: Finnish Immigrant Workers and the Church.” In For the Common Good. Superior, WI: The Työmies Society, 1977.
William Hoglund. “Flight from Industry: Finns and Farming in America.” Finnish Americana. (1978), Ed. by Michael Karni. New York Mills, MN: Parta Printers, Inc.
Hoglund, William, Finnish Immigrants in America 1880-1920. New York, NY: Arno Press, 1979.
William Hoglund. “Finns.” In Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups. Ed. Stephan Thernstrom, Ann Orlov, and Oscar Handlin. 1980.
George Hummasti. “The Workingman’s Daily Bread, Finnish-American Working Class,
Newspapers, 1900-1921.”In For the Common Good. Superior, Wisconsin: Työmies Society, 1977, pp. 167-194.
Ralph J. Jalkanen. Ed. The Faith of the Finns: Historical Perspectives on the Finnish Lutheran Church in America. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 1972.
Jutikkala, Eino. A History of Finland. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, Inc., 1962.
Michael Karni. “The Founding of the Finnish Socialist Federation and the Minnesota Strike of 1907.” In For the Common Good. Superior, WI: The Työmies Society, 1977.
Michael G. Karni and Douglas J Ollila. Ed. For the Common Good. Superior, WI: The Työmies Society, 1977.
Matti Kaups. “The Finns in the Copper and Iron Ore Mines of the Western Great Lakes Region, 1864-1905: Some Preliminary Observations.” In The Finnish Experience in the Western Great Lakes Region: New Perspectives. Ed.Michael Karni, et. al. Turku: Institute for Migration, 1975, pp. 55-88.
Matti Kaups. “Finns in Urban America: A View from Duluth.” In Finnish Diaspora II: United States. Ed. Michael G. Karni, 1982, pp. 63-86.
Kero, Reino. Migration From Finland to North America in the Years Between the United States Civil War and the First World War. Turku, Finland: Institute of General History, 1974.
Kivisto, Peter. Immigrant Socialists in the United States. Cranbury, NY: Associated University Presses, 1984.
John Kolehmainen. “A Study of Marriage in a Finnish Community.” In American Journal of Sociology 42, (November, 1936), 371-382.
John Kolehmainen. “The Retreat of Finnish.” In American Sociological Review 2. (1937), 887-889.
John Kolehmainen. “The Finnicisation of English in America.” In American Sociological Review 2 (1937), 62-66.
John Kolehmainen. “Finnish Newspapers and Periodicals in Michigan.” In Michigan
History Magazine 24 (1940), 119-127.
Kolehmainen, John. The Finns in America. Hancock, MI: Lutheran Book Concern, 1947. Kolehmainen, John and George Hill. Haven in the Woods: The Story of the Finns in Wisconsin. Madison, WI: The State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1951.
Kostiainen, Auvo. The Forging of Finnish-American Communism, 1917-1924. Turku, Finland: University of Turku.
Lankton, Larry. Cradle to Grave: Life, Work, and Death at the Lake Superior Copper Mines. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1991.
Michael M. Loukinen “The Maintenance of Ethnic Culture in Finnish-American Rural Communities.” In Finnish Americana 2 (1979), 8-27.
Michael M. Loukinen “Sociolinguistic Structure of Finnish America.” In Theory in Bilingual Education, Volume 2 Ed. Raymond Padilla, Ypsilanti, MI: Eastern Michigan University Press, 1980. pp. 159-176.
Michael M. Loukinen “Second Generation Finnish American Migration from the North woods to Detroit, 1920-1950.” In Finnish Diaspora, Toronto, Canada: 1982.
Loukinen, Michael M. FINNISH AMERICAN LIVES, 60 min. documentary film. Marquette, MI: Up North Films, Northern Michigan University, 1984.
Lowrey Nelson. “Intermarriage Among Nationality Groups in a Rural Area of Minnesota.” In American Journal of Sociology 48 (5) (1945), 585-592.
Vilho Niitemaa. “The Finns in The Great Migratory Movement From Europe to America 1865-1914.” In Old Friends--Strong Ties. Ed. Vilho Niitemaa. et. al. Turku, Finland: Institute for Migration, 1976.
Douglas Ollila, Jr. “From Socialism to Industrial Unionism (IWW): Social Factors in the Emergence of Left-Labor Radicalism Among Finnish Workers on the Mesabi, 1911-1919.” In The Finnish Experience in the Western Great Lakes Region: New Perspectives. Ed. Michael Karni, et. al. Turku, Finland: Institute for Migration, 1975, pp. 55-88.
Stoller and Karni. “Where Do Finns Live? Geographical Distribution of Finnish Americans.” “Education.” “Census Article on Occupations.” In Finnish American Reporter. 1992.
Arthur Puotinen. “Early Labor Organizations in the Copper Country.” In For the Common Good. Superior, WI: The Työmies Society, 1977.
Thurner, Arthur W. Rebels on the Range: The Michigan Copper Miners’ Strike of 1913-1914. Privately published by Arthur W. Thurner, 1984.
Thurner, Arthur W. Calumet Copper and People: History of a Michigan Mining Community 1864-1970. Privately published by Arthur Thurner, 1974.
Michael M. Loukinen. “Continuity and Change Among Third Generation Finnish Americans From a Small Rural Community.” The Making of Finnish America (International Conference), University of Minnesota, November 6, 1992.
Michael M. Loukinen. “From Language Island to Metropolitan America: Finnish American on the Move.” Eighty-second Annual Meeting of the Society for Advancement of Scandinavian Study, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, May 1, 1992.
Michael M. Loukinen. “Family History May Be the Key: Surveying the Values and Behaviors of Third Generation Finns in Pelkie, Michigan.” FINNFORUM V. Towards the New Millennium, Prospects and Challenges, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, May 25, 1996.
Stoller and Lorna Forster. “Ethnicity and Social Stratification: Finnish Americans in the 1980 Census.” The Making of Finnish America (International Conference), University of Minnesota, November 6, 1991, (1992).
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