Query: SELECT note_id,film_id,text,cite_title,cite_link FROM note WHERE film_id = '44';

227 The Sacred Harp is a shape-note tunebook, first compiled for singing instruction and congregational singing in 1844 in Hamilton, Georgia. It has been kept in continuous active use since that time by generations of devoted singers.

228 In Sacred Harp tradition, the extrended family has always served as an important base of support. In part this is because large families can provide loyalty, expertise, organizational energy, and continuity over successive generations. More importantly, family members share the kind of enduring emotional bonds that are valued in Sacred Harp singing. Jesse and Beulah Wootten instilled in their children a deep love for Sacred Harp, which was integrated into family gatherings and inscribed in family identity.

229 (3) "Corinth" - Sacred Harp, p. 32
Poetry: Joseph Grieg, 175
Music: John Massengale, arr. 1844

Jesus, and shall it ever be,
A mortal man ashamed of thee?
Ashamed of Thee, whom angels praise,
Whose glories shine through endless days.

Ashamed of Jesus! Just as soon
Let midnight be ashamed of noon;
"Tis midnight with my soul till He,
Bright morning star, bids darkness flee.

Ashamed of Jesus, sooner far
Let evening blush to own a star,
He shed the beams of light divine
O"er this benighted soul of mine.

Ashamed of Jesus, that dear Friend
On whom my hopes of heav"n depend!
No, when I blush, be this my shame,
That I no more revere His name.

230 (4) Singing schools are traditional music instruction classes taught by experienced singers such as Terry Wootten. They have a lengthy association with with shape-note tunebooks, and before that with the itinerant singing masters of eighteenth century New England.

231 (5) Shape notes are a form of music notation designed to facilitate vocal music instruction. In this system, each degree of the musical scale is assigned a corresponding shape and name. Their introduction into American musical culture is usually attributed to the tunebook The Easy Instructor, compiled around 1800. Although shape notes were widely used in singing schools, they were ultimately not adopted by prominent music education institutions such as churches, music academies, and public schools.

232 (6) "Fairfield" (page 29)
Poetry: Edmund Jones, 1750
Music: Hitchcock

Come, humble sinner, in whose breast
A thousand tho"ts revolve,
Come with guilt and fear oppressed,
And make this last resolve.

I"ll go to Jesus, though my sin
Hath like a mountain rose;
I know his courts I"ll enter in,
Whatever may oppose.

I can but perish if I go,
I am resolved to try,
For if I stay away, I know
I must forever die.

233 (7) The Sacred Harp uses four shapes to represent the musical scale. Thus to sing the seven-tone diatonic scale, three of the shapes are repeated — "fa-sol-la-fa-sol-la-mi-fa." Other shape note tunebooks use seven shapes, the most well-known being "do-re-mi-fa-sol-la-ti-do."

234 (8) This song is printed in the "Rudiments of Music" section of the book. It is considered a "singing exercise" and is more often sung in singing schools than in singings.

When converts first begin to sing,
Wonder, wonder, wonder,
Their happy souls are on the wing,
Wonder, wonder, wonder,
Their theme is all redeeming love,
Wonder, wonder, wonder,
Fain would they be with Christ above,
Wonder, wonder, wonder.

235 (9) The practice of "beating time" has special meaning in Sacred Harp tradition. Terry Wootten has the whole singing school class beat time — move their hand up and down to mark the rhythm. Its purpose is ostensibly to establish the tempo while leading, but in practice many singers beat time from their seats as an aid in following the music, as a part of traditional practice, and as a part of the physical experience of the music. Like much about fasola singing, these practices have pedagogical origins, but far exceed that function in traditional practice.

236 (10) "Florida" (page 203)
Poetry: Isaac Watts, 1719
Music: Truman S. Wetmore, 1803

Let sinners take their course,
And choose the road to death;
But in the worship of my God,
I"ll spend my daily breath.

My thoughts address His throne,
When morning brings the light;
I seek his blessings every noon,
And pay my vows at night.

237 (11) The Wootten singing is held each year, on the second Sunday in April, at Antioch Baptist Church near Ider, Alabama. Known most often by the name of the church, "Antioch," the singing attracts singers from across the nation, drawn by the certainty of good singing, sincerity of spirit, and top-notch hospitality that the Woottens provide.

238 (12) The preeminent venue for Sacred Harp singing is the "all-day singing," an annual event organized most often by a church, a family, or a singing community. Singings run from midmorning to midafternoon and are loosely managed by a set of elected officers. There are several singings on each Saturday or Sunday of the year, many in the traditional Sacred Harp areas of the southern U.S.

239 (13) "Liverpool" (page 37)
Poetry: Hall"s New Collection, 1823
Music: M. C. H. Davis, 1835

Young people all attention give
And hear what I shall say,
I wish your souls in Christ to live,
In everlasting day.

Remember you are hastening on,
To death"s dark gloomy shade,
Your joys on earth will soon be gone,
Your flesh in dust be laid.

240 (14) In Sacred Harp tradition, singers are seated in an arrangement called a "hollow square." In this, the leader stands in the center, flanked by the four singing parts — tenor or lead, treble, alto, and bass. In a church or other rectangular building, the pew area where the congregation enters is customarily the tenor section — so that visitors are seated where they can sing and hear the melody of the songs. Although some come to listen and sit in the back of the tenor section, there is no discernible audience nor is Sacred Harp singing discernibly a performance.

241 (15) "Primrose" (page 47)
Poetry: Charles Wesley, 1763
Music: Ananias Davisson, 1816

Salvation, O the joyful sound!
"Tis pleasure to our ears;
A sovereign balm for every wound
A cordial for our fears.

Buried in sorrow and in sin,
At hell"s dark door we lay;
But we arise by grace divine
To see a heavenly day.

Salvation! Let the echo fly
The spacious earth around;
While all the armies in the sky
Conspire to raise the sound.

242 (16) "Devotion" (page 48)
Poetry: Isaac Watts, 1719
Music: Alexander Johnson, 1818

Sweet is the day of sacred rest;
No mortal care shall seize my breast;
O may my heart in tune be found
Like David"s harp of solemn sound.

Then shall I share a glorious part
When grace hath well refined my heart,
And fresh supplies of joy are shed,
Like holy oil, to cheer my head.

Then shall I see and hear and know
All I desired and wished below;
And ev"ry power find sweet employ
In that eternal world of joy.

243 (17) At noon, singers adjourn to a meeting room or outdoors where a lavish feast, sometimes of unimaginable abundance, will have mysteriously appeared. This is the traditional dinner-on-the-grounds (sometimes dinner-on-the-ground) prepared by local singers, church members, or other supporters of the singing.

244 (18) In Sacred Harp tradition, the role of the song leader is perplexingly simple. Long ago, song leaders were the community"s musical experts and led a "lesson" of several songs-meant in part as a period of musical instruction. In recent years everyone is implored to lead, even rank beginners, and are aided by veteran singers on the front bench who take control at the slightest hint of uncertainty.

245 (19) "Sherburne" (page 186)
Poetry: anonymous
Music: Daniel Read, 1783

While shepherds watch"d their flocks by night
All seated on the ground,
The angel of the Lord came down
And glory shone around.

All glory be to God on high,
And to the earth be peace,
Good will hence forth from heav"n to men
Begin and never cease.

246 (20) The fuguing tune is a distinctive style of
composition that rose to popularity during the late-eighteenth century
"golden age" of New England singing schools. The form was championed by
the generation of composers that included William Billings, Daniel Read,
Justin Morgan, and Jeremiah Ingalls. Later, tunes from these composers
comprised part of the common stock of nineteenth century tunebooks.
Following a short passage sung together, the distinctive feature of the
fugue involves the cascading entry of voices. Fugues are considered more
difficult to sing and to lead than other songs and thus are sometimes
associated with accomplished leaders such as Barrett Ashley. In the film,
"Sherburne" and "Florida" are examples of fugues.

247 (21) "Wondrous Love" (page 159)
Poetry: from Dupuy"s
Hymns and Spiritual Songs, 1811
Music: attributed to James Christopher,
1840


What wondrous love is this!

oh, my soul! oh, my soul!

What wondrous love is this!

oh, my soul!

What wondrous love is this

That caused the Lord of bliss

To bear the dreadful curse

for my soul, for my soul,

To bear the dreadful curse

for my soul.

248 (22) In the singing community, there is a repository of
accumulated fondness for fellow singers. Singers are quick to note that
it is in fact a consequence of fellowship — a word singers use, both
as a noun and a verb, to describe the particular manner of social and
religious discourse that prevails at Sacred Harp singings. It is through
fellowship that Sacred Harp music receives its personal meaning —
the application of its principles to the community of singers. What makes
Sacred Harp singing distinctive, says Philip Wootten, echoing a widespread
sentiment, is that each and every singer comes to fellowship. "If you
couldn"t have fellowship with your brothers," he says, "then singing wouldn"t
last long. It would die out, it would be dead in a short period of time."

249 (23) There is a period at the end of a singing where singers
are invited to make announcements of upcoming events. As the camera follows
several announcements, one readily notes the vast geographic extent of
the class at the Antioch singing. Appeals are made for singers to come
to events as far away as Chicago and Colorado. If smaller annual singings
are local in scope, the larger ones routinely attract singers from great
distances. Today, some very good singings are held outside the South.
In their musical proficiency and even in their sincerity of spirit, some
of these have approached the level of regard granted the best traditional
singings. But the deep connection to locality, family, and religious tradition
that has undergirded the century-long embrace in the Wootten family will
be long in coming in these new areas.

250 (24) Sand Mountain is the area of northeast Alabama where
Thomas and Rhoda Haynes settled during the nineteenth century. Many of
their descendants, including those from the Wootten branch, still live
in the area. Northeast Alabama is one of the areas where Sacred Harp singing
is long established.

251 (25) "Hallelujah" (page 146)

Poetry: Charles Wesley, 1759

Music: William Walker, 1835


And let this feeble body fail,
And let it faint or die;
My
soul shall quit this mournful vale,
And soar to worlds on high,
And
I"ll sing hallelujah, and you"ll sing hallelujah,
And we"ll all sing
hallelujah, when we arrive at home.


Give joy or grief, give ease or pain,

Take life or friends away,

But let me find them all again,

In that eternal day.

And I"ll sing hallelujah, and you"ll sing hallelujah,

And we"ll all sing hallelujah, when we arrive at home.

252 (26) Campmeetings were large evangelical religious gatherings
popular in the American frontier areas during the early nineteenth century
— the same period that shape note tunebooks rose to prominence. Characterized
by lay preaching, free will conversion, and emotional involvement, campmeetings
were pivotal in freeing frontier religion from the constraints of established
churches. Their size was extraordinary: relative to the sparse population
density of the time they would exceed even the largest public events today.

The music of the revivals was characterized by the campmeeting refrain
— an easily-memorized repeated phrase usually with evocative content.
"And I"ll sing hallelujah" was a stock phrase of campmeeting refrains.
Such a form was well-suited to the spontaneity and emotional fervor of
the events, the illiteracy of the participants, and the lack of printed
materials available.

Eager to promote their books, shape-note book compilers incorporated popular
campmeeting songs, arranged in shape notes and harmonized according to
the style of the time. In the film, "Hallelujah" is an example of a campmeeting
song.

253 (27) "O Jesus, my Saviour, I know thou art mine"

Lloyd"s Primitive Hymns, #109


O Jesus, my Saviour, I know thou art mine,
For thee all plesaures
of sin I resign:
Of objects most pleasing I love thee the
best;
Without thee I"m wretched, but with thee I"m blest.


I find him in singing, I find him in prayer;
In sweet meditation
he always is near,
My constant companion, O may we ne"er part;
All
glory to Jesus, he dwells in my heart.

254 (28) Lloyd"s Primitive Hymns is a hymn book compiled by
Benjamin Lloyd of Coosa County, Alabama, and first published in 1841 for
the Primitive Baptist church. Hymn books, which are collections of
religious poetry presented without music, derive from an era before
tunebooks, which, like The Sacred Harp, contain printed music.

255 (29) The "cousins" singing" is the name given to the
informal singing that Wootten family members have held on occasion. In the
film, we see scenes from the singing organized by Terry and Sheila and
held in their house.

256 (30) "Precious Memories" is an example of a gospel song,
a musical style that emerged during the late-nineteenth-century
evangelical movement. Its most distinctive musical feature was the use of
"modern" harmony, then consisting of key modulations using accidentals.
These techniques were rejected by many Sacred Harp singers, helping to
instill in Sacred Harp a deep loyalty to the antiquarian "old paths" of
music tradition.


"Precious Memories"
Poetry and Music: J. B. F. Wright, 1925


Precious mem"ries, unseen angels,
Sent from somewhere to my
soul
How they linger, ever near me
And the sacred past
unfold.


Precious mem"ries, how they linger
How they ever flood my
soul
In the stillness of the midnight
Precious, sacred scenes
unfold.

257 (31) "Morning" (page 163)
Poetry: Isaac Watts,
1709
Music: Amos Pilsbury, 1799


He dies, the friend of sinners dies,
Lo, Salem"s daughters weep
around;
A solemn darkness veils the skies,
A sudden trembling shakes
the ground.

258 (32) "Just As I Am"
Poetry: William Batchelder
Bradbury
Music: Charlotte Elliot
From The Sacred Harp, Cooper
Revision.


Just as I am, thy love unknown
Has broken every barrier
down;
Now, to be thine, yea, thine alone,
O lamb of God, I come, I
come!

259 33) "Love At Home"
Poetry and music: Joseph Hugh
McNaughton
From The Sacred Harp, Cooper Revision.


There is beauty all around
When there"s love at home;
There is
joy in every sound
When there"s love at home.
Peace and plenty here
abide,
Smiling sweet on every side,
Time doth softly, sweetly
glide,
When there"s love at home.

260 (34) An early-twentieth-century revision of The
Sacred Harp
was the 1902 Cooper Revision, by W. M. Cooper of Dothan,
Alabama. This edition took a progressive slant, both in style and content.
Cooper included some gospel music, closer harmony, and added alto parts to
many three-part songs. While this appealed to the tastes of the day, it
inspired a reactionary movement among some Sacred Harp singers that led to
the more conservative James Revision of 1911.

261 (35) The Haynes family reunion has been held annually
since 1896. According to family members, Thomas and Rhoda Haynes attended
that first reunion and are still prominent in the hearts and minds of
those who attend today. Sacred Harp singing has long played an important
role in the event.

262 (36) "Sweet By and By"
Poetry: S. Filmore
Bennet, 1867
Music: Joseph P. Webster, 1867
From The Sacred Harp,
Cooper Revision.


There"s a land that is fairer than day,
And by faith we can see
it a-far,
For the Father waits over the way
To prepare us a dwelling
place there.


In the sweet by and by,
We shall meet on that beautiful
shore;
In the sweet by and by,
We shall meet on that beautiful
shore

263 (37) The song "Wells" is sometimes sung very slowly
— as it is here — in memory of beloved singers or family members
who have passed on.


"Wells" (page 28)
Poetry: Isaac Watts, 1719
Music: Israel
Holdroyd, 1724


Life is the time to serve the Lord,
A time to insure the great
reward;
And while the lamp holds out to burn,
The vilest sinner may
return.


Life is the hour that God has giv"n
To escape hell and fly to
heav"n;
The day of grace, and mortals may
Secure the blessing of the
day.


The living know that they must die,
But all the dead forgotten
lie;
Their mem"ry and their sense is gone,
Alike unknowing and
unknown.

264 38) Freeman describes Beulah as a "shoutin"
woman," meaning that she was not ashamed or embarrassed to express herself
in church when she felt the presence of the holy spirit.

265 (39) An association meeting is a gathering of members
of the various churches in a church association, an organizational unit
common among Baptists churches. Associationism was an important concept
of church polity developed by Baptists during the early nineteenth century.
Its goal was to provide for organization and sharing of resources (e.g.,
circuit preachers) among like-minded churches without sacrificing their
independence — which Baptists then thought unassailable. Periodically,
associations would hold large meetings that drew from all the member churches.

266 (40) As the singing at the reunion ends, the singers
"take the parting hand" as a farewell embrace, much as they would have
after Postell"s sermon. As is the custom at many Sacred Harp singings,
they close with the song "Parting Hand," in this case following immediately
with a verse from "Hallelujah." This parting ritual marks the dispersal
of the singing family. It follows the closing prayer, a prayer which implores
that singers arrive safely at their various residences. The end of a singing
is a time of impending absence — from one"s fellow singers and from
the vivid spiritual presence that is Sacred Harp


"Parting Hand" (page 62)
Poetry: John Blain, 1818
Music: arr. by
William Walker, 1835


How sweet the hours have passed away
Since we have met to sing
and pray.
How loath we are to leave the place
O could I stay with
friends so kind,
O would it cheer my drooping mind!
But duty makes
me understand
That we must take the parting hand.